SQL Examples

You can use the SQL examples for frequently used functions, syntax and techniques in SQL Stream Builder (SSB). SSB uses Calcite Compatible SQL, but to include the functionality of Flink you need to customize certain SQL commands.

Metadata commands

-- show all tables
SHOW tables;

-- describe or show schema for table
DESCRIBE payments;
DESC payments;

Timestamps, intervals and time

-- eventTimestamp is the Kafka timestamp
-- as unix timestamp. Magically added to every schema.
SELECT max(eventTimestamp) FROM solar_inputs;

-- make it human readable
SELECT CAST(max(eventTimestamp) AS varchar) as TS FROM solar_inputs;

-- date math with interval
SELECT * FROM payments
WHERE eventTimestamp > CURRENT_TIMESTAMP-interval '10' second;


-- hourly payment volume

SELECT SUM(CAST(amount AS numeric)) AS payment_volume,
CAST(TUMBLE_END(eventTimestamp, interval '1' hour) AS varchar) AS ts
FROM payments
GROUP BY TUMBLE(eventTimestamp, interval '1' hour);
-- detect multiple auths in a short window and
-- send to lock account topic/microservice

SELECT card,
MAX(amount) as theamount,
TUMBLE_END(eventTimestamp, interval '5' minute) as ts
FROM payments
GROUP BY card, TUMBLE(eventTimestamp, interval '5' minute)
HAVING COUNT(*) > 4 -- >4==fraud

Working with arrays

-- unnest each array element as separate row
SELECT b.*, u.*
 FROM bgp_avro b,
 UNNEST(b.path) AS u(pathitem)

Union ALL

-- union two different tables
SELECT * FROM clickstream
WHERE useragent = 'Chrome/62.0.3202.84 Mobile Safari/537.36'
SELECT * FROM clickstream
WHERE useragent = 'Version/4.0 Chrome/58.0.3029.83 Mobile Safari/537.36'


-- simple math
SELECT 42+1 FROM mylogs;

-- inline
SELECT (amount+10)*upcharge AS total_amount
FROM payments
WHERE account_type = 'merchant'
-- convert C to F
SELECT (temp-32)/1.8 AS temp_fahrenheit
FROM reactor_core_sensors;
-- daily miles accumulator, 100:1
-- send to persistent storage microservice
-- for upsert of miles tally
SELECT card,
SUM(amount)/100 AS miles,
TUMBLE_END(eventTimestamp, interval '1' day)
FROM payments
GROUP BY card, TUMBLE(eventTimestamp, interval '1' day);


-- join multiple streams
SELECT o.name,
       hop_end(r.eventTimestamp, interval '20' second, interval '40' second)
 FROM click_stream o join orgs r on o.org_id = r.org_id
               join models d on d.org_id = r.org_id
 GROUP BY o.name,
        hop(r.eventTimestamp, interval '20' second, interval '40' second)
-- join with temporal table where LatestRates is a temporal table
  o.amount, o.currency, r.rate, o.amount * r.rate
  Orders AS o
  JOIN LatestRates FOR SYSTEM_TIME AS OF o.proctime AS r 
  ON r.currency = o.currency


Joins are considered "hyperjoins" because SQL Stream Builder has the ability to join multiple tables in a single query, and because the Kafka table is created from a data provider, these joins can span multiple clusters/connect strings, but also multiple types of sources (join Kafka and a database for instance).
SELECT us_west.user_score+ap_south.user_score
FROM kafka_in_zone_us_west us_west
FULL OUTER JOIN kafka_in_zone_ap_south ap_south
ON us_west.user_id = ap_south.user_id;

Misc SQL tricks

-- concatenation
SELECT 'testme_'||name FROM logs;
-- select the datatype of the field
SELECT eventTimestamp, TYPEOF(eventTimestamp) as mytype FROM airplanes;

Escaping and quoting

Typical escaping and quoting is supported.
  • Nested columns
    SELECT foo.`bar` FROM table; -- must quote nested column
  • Literals
    SELECT "some string literal" FROM mytable; -- a literal

Built In Functions

-- convert EPOCH time to timestamp
select EPOCH_TO_TIMESTAMP(1593718981) from ev_sample_fraud;

-- convert EPOCH milliseconds to timestamp
select EPOCHMILLIS_TO_TIMESTAMP(1593718838150) from ev_sample_fraud;