Generating Table and Column Statistics
Use the COMPUTE STATS
statement to collect table
and column statistics. The COMPUTE STATS
variants offer
different tradeoffs between computation cost, staleness, and maintenance
workflows.
COMPUTE STATS
The COMPUTE STATS
command collects and sets the
tablelevel and partitionlevel row counts as well as all column
statistics for a given table. The collection process is CPUintensive
and can take a long time to complete for very large tables.
COMPUTE STATS
consider the following
options which can be combined. 
Limit the number of columns for which statistics are collected to increase the efficiency of COMPUTE STATS. Queries benefit from statistics for those columns involved in filters, join conditions, group by or partition by clauses. Other columns are good candidates to exclude from COMPUTE STATS. This feature is available since Impala 2.12.

Set the
MT_DOP
query option to use more threads within each participatingimpalad
to compute the statistics faster  but not more efficiently. Note that computing stats on a large table with a highMT_DOP
value can negatively affect other queries running at the same time if theCOMPUTE STATS
claims most CPU cycles. 
Consider the experimental extrapolation and sampling features (see below) to further increase the efficiency of computing stats.
COMPUTE STATS
is intended to be run periodically, e.g.
weekly, or ondemand when the contents of a table have changed
significantly. Due to the high resource utilization and long response
time of tCOMPUTE STATS
, it is most practical to run it
in a scheduled maintenance window where the Impala cluster is idle
enough to accommodate the expensive operation. The degree of change that
qualifies as “significant” depends on the query workload, but
typically, if 30% of the rows have changed then it is recommended to
recompute statistics.
If you reload a complete new set of data for a table, but the number of rows and number of distinct values for each column is relatively unchanged from before, you do not need to recompute stats for the table.
Extrapolation and Sampling

Newly added partitions do not have row count statistics. Table scans that only access those new partitions are treated as not having stats. Similarly, table scans that access both new and old partitions estimate the scan cardinality based on those old partitions that have stats, and the new partitions without stats are treated as having 0 rows.

The row counts of existing partitions become stale when data is added or dropped.

Computing stats for tables with a 100,000 or more partitions might fail or be very slow due to the high cost of updating the partition metadata in the Hive Metastore.

With transient compute resources it is important to minimize the time from starting a new cluster to successfully running queries. Since the cluster might be relatively shortlived, users might prefer to quickly collect stats that are "good enough" as opposed to spending a lot of time and resources on computing fullfidelity stats.
COMPUTE STATS
to address the scenarios above on
a frequent basis. The sampling feature makes COMPUTE STATS
more
efficient by processing a fraction of the table data, and the
extrapolation feature aims to reduce the frequency at which
COMPUTE STATS
needs to be rerun by estimating the
row count of new and modified partitions.
The sampling and extrapolation features are disabled by default. They can be enabled globally or for specific tables, as follows.
 Set the
impalad
startup configurationenable_stats_extrapolation
to enable the features globally.  To enable them only for a specific table, set the
impala.enable.stats.extrapolation
table property totrue
for the table. The tablelevel property overrides the global setting, so it is also possible to enable sampling and extrapolation globally, but disable it for specific tables by setting the table property tofalse
. For example:ALTER TABLE mytable test_table SET TBLPROPERTIES("impala.enable.stats.extrapolation"="true");
 Stats Extrapolation

The main idea of stats extrapolation is to estimate the row count of new and modified partitions based on the result of the last
COMPUTE STATS
. Enabling stats extrapolation changes the behavior ofCOMPUTE STATS
, as well as the cardinality estimation of table scans.COMPUTE STATS
no longer computes and stores perpartition row counts, and instead, only computes a tablelevel row count together with the total number of file bytes in the table at that time. No partition metadata is modified. The input cardinality of a table scan is estimated by converting the data volume of relevant partitions to a row count, based on the tablelevel row count and file bytes statistics. It is assumed that within the same table, different sets of files with the same data volume correspond to the similar number of rows on average. With extrapolation enabled, the scan cardinality estimation ignores perpartition row counts. It only relies on the tablelevel statistics and the scanned data volume.The
SHOW TABLE STATS
andEXPLAIN
commands distinguish between row counts stored in the Hive Metastore, and the row counts extrapolated based on the above process.  Sampling

A
TABLESAMPLE
clause may be added toCOMPUTE STATS
to limit the percentage of data to be processed. The final statistics are obtained by extrapolating the statistics from the data sample over the entire table. The extrapolated statistics are stored in the Hive Metastore, just as if no sampling was used. The following example runsCOMPUTE STATS
over a 10 percent data sample.COMPUTE STATS test_table TABLESAMPLE SYSTEM(10) ;
We have found that a 10 percent sampling rate typically offers a good tradeoff between statistics accuracy and execution cost. A sampling rate well below 10 percent has shown poor results and is not recommended.
COMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
In Impala 2.1.0 and higher, you can use the COMPUTE
INCREMENTAL STATS
and DROP INCREMENTAL STATS
commands. The INCREMENTAL
clauses work with incremental
statistics, a specialized feature for partitioned tables.
When you compute incremental statistics for a partitioned table, by default Impala only processes those partitions that do not yet have incremental statistics. By processing only newly added partitions, you can keep statistics up to date without incurring the overhead of reprocessing the entire table each time.
You can also compute or drop statistics for a specified subset of
partitions by including a PARTITION
clause in the
COMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
or DROP INCREMENTAL
STATS
statement.
The metadata for incremental statistics is handled differently from the original style of statistics:

Issuing a
COMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
without a partition clause causes Impala to compute incremental stats for all partitions that do not already have incremental stats. This might be the entire table when running the command for the first time, but subsequent runs should only update new partitions. You can force updating a partition that already has incremental stats by issuing aDROP INCREMENTAL STATS
before runningCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
. 
The
SHOW TABLE STATS
andSHOW PARTITIONS
statements now include an additional column showing whether incremental statistics are available for each column. A partition could already be covered by the original type of statistics based on a priorCOMPUTE STATS
statement, as indicated by a value other than1
under the#Rows
column. Impala query planning uses either kind of statistics when available. 
COMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
takes more time thanCOMPUTE STATS
for the same volume of data. Therefore it is most suitable for tables with large data volume where new partitions are added frequently, making it impractical to run a fullCOMPUTE STATS
operation for each new partition. For unpartitioned tables, or partitioned tables that are loaded once and not updated with new partitions, use the originalCOMPUTE STATS
syntax. 
COMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
uses some memory in the catalogd process, proportional to the number of partitions and number of columns in the applicable table. The memory overhead is approximately 400 bytes for each column in each partition. This memory is reserved in the catalogd daemon, the statestored daemon, and in each instance of the impalad daemon. 
In cases where new files are added to an existing partition, issue a
REFRESH
statement for the table, followed by aDROP INCREMENTAL STATS
andCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
sequence for the changed partition. 
The
DROP INCREMENTAL STATS
statement operates only on a single partition at a time. To remove statistics (whether incremental or not) from all partitions of a table, issue aDROP STATS
statement with noINCREMENTAL
orPARTITION
clauses.
The following considerations apply to incremental statistics when the structure of an existing table is changed (known as schema evolution):

If you use an
ALTER TABLE
statement to drop a column, the existing statistics remain valid andCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
does not rescan any partitions. 
If you use an
ALTER TABLE
statement to add a column, Impala rescans all partitions and fills in the appropriate columnlevel values the next time you runCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
. 
If you use an
ALTER TABLE
statement to change the data type of a column, Impala rescans all partitions and fills in the appropriate columnlevel values the next time you runCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
. 
If you use an
ALTER TABLE
statement to change the file format of a table, the existing statistics remain valid and a subsequentCOMPUTE INCREMENTAL STATS
does not rescan any partitions.