Local file system support

Learn about the advantages and limitations of using local File System (FS) to store indexes of Cloudera Search.

Apache Lucene-Solr supports various file systems to store index data, including the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) or file systems which are local to the server.

Solr queries perform the best when the index data is available in memory. The HDFS data storage implementation includes various performance tweaks, for example data locality, Short Circuit Data Reads and caching of the HDFS data blocks in memory. For most of the cases this yields acceptable performance, however there are some cases where sub-second response time of queries is critical. In these cases a local index storage (especially using performant Solid State Disks, SSDs) paired with the OS caching, can yield better performance. In the upstream Apache Solr, local FS storage is a widely used and supported feature that is considered stable.

Cloudera curently supports local FS storage for new installations only. The global default behavior of Cloudera Search remains storing indexes on HDFS. If you want to store your indexes locally, you can configure it at collection level, by generating a collection configuration using the solrctl instancedir --generate command with the -localfs argument. This replaces HdfsDirectoryFactory with NRTCachingDirectoryFactory, and HDFS lock factory with native lock factory in the generated solrconfig.xml file. When Solr loads such a collection, it writes the index into a subdirectory of the local data directory (by default var/lib/solr).

Benefits of using local file system for index storage

No need to worry about data locality

The HDFS directory factory attempts to place each HDFS data block on a Data Node which is local to a given Solr server, provided that such a Data Node is up and operational. When the data node goes down, or an HDFS rebalancing operation is triggered in the cluster, the overall data locality of Solr can be ruined which can negatively affect performance. At the moment there is no easy way to restore locality, either you can optimize an index which can have bad side effects, or you use the ADDREPLICA of the Collections API to re-add each replica and then apply DELETEREPLICA on the old replica with bad locality.

With local FS there are no such issues.

Faster disk reads and better caching

The HDFS block cache provides a great help when you have to read data blocks which are not available locally. For the fast execution of a query it is critically important to ensure that a block is available locally - a cache miss can be costly due to the network round trips involved.

Better Query Response Times

Cloudera performed benchmarking to measure document indexing performance, and found that the indexing was roughly two times faster on local FS than on HDFS even when using a magnetic spinning disk.

Table 1. Indexing time in seconds for 10 million records
HDFS Local FS Percentage
2x5 million records, 2x1 thread 3265 2853 87.38
2x5 million records, 2x5 thread 1645 856 52.04
2x5 million records, 2x10 thread 1603 715 44.6
2x5 million records, 2x20 thread 1524 695 45.6
Spark Crunch Indexer, 20 executors 1652 766 46.37
Spark Crunch Indexer, 40 executors 1559 762 48.88
Spark Crunch Indexer, 100 executors 1471 752 51.12

In another case NVMe SSDs were used with a local FS to store the Solr index. In this case the query executions turned out to be three times faster than on HDFS.

You must take care regarding the RAID configurations, as the local FS does not provide an FS level replication, so the data redundancy has to be provided at the disk level by using a RAID setup and/or at the Solr level by adding more replicas to the collection.

No “Small files problem”

HDFS is sensitive to having a large number of small files stored. Even in spite of Solr periodically merging the segments in the background, an index directory can have many small files. NameNode RPC queues may be periodically overloaded when having a Solr collection with a large number of shards (100+).

Dynamic caching

When using a local FS, caching of the files is managed by the underlying operating system. The operating system can dynamically manage the amount of memory used for caching based on the current memory pressure, whereas the HDFS block cache allocation is more static.

Less impact from other services

By storing the files locally, query performance is not affected by the load on HDFS caused by other services. This is especially important if you have certain query response time SLAs to meet.

Less storage overhead

The index files on HDFS are stored with the same replication factor as configured for the underlying HDFS service. The current Solr implementation allows specifying a custom replication factor for the transaction log files, but for the index files it always uses the replication factor configured for the entire HDFS service even if you want to go with a smaller replication factor.

CDP features that are only available on HDFS

Index data encryption

CDP provides robust, transparent encryption of the HDFS data where the encryption key management is external to HDFS. Only the authorized HDFS clients can access the data, even HDFS and the operating system interact using encrypted data only. The solution also supports various Hardware Security Modules and CPU instruction sets to accelerate the encryption.

When storing data on a local FS, encryption is also possible but needs to be implemented and managed external to CDP.

Quota support

CDP have built in solutions to define quotas for the data stored on HDFS.

When using a local FS, the disk space taken by Solr indexes is not controlled by CDP, so monitoring the disk usage and ensuring that index files do not eat up all the space has to be done externally.

File system level redundancy

Solr allows collection level fault tolerance using the replica concept. Provided that the replicas of each shard are stored on different machines, this provides enough protection against the failure of a single server. Additionally to this, HDFS is distributed by nature and it provides block level redundancy. This provides more opportunities for disaster recovery - in case of any server going down, the affected replicas can be restarted on any other server, pointing to the same data set.

Flexible cross-cluster backups

The backup implementation provided by Cloudera Search is relying on the hadoop distcp tool to export index snapshots to HDFS, and it also allows transferring them to remote clusters.

Using the MapReduceIndexerTool (MRIT)

MRIT does not work with local file systems as an indexing target, as it creates temporary indexes on the HDFS. After the MapReduce jobs have completed, the client part of the indexer invokes the MERGEINDEXES action of the Solr CoreAdmin API. This only works when the source and target index use the same directory factory.