Rack awareness (Location awareness)
Kudu's rack awareness feature provides protection from correlated failures. The rack awareness feature has two elements: location assignment and placement policy.
Kudu supports a rack awareness feature. Kudu’s ordinary re-replication methods ensure the availability of the cluster in the event of a single node failure. However, clusters can be vulnerable to correlated failures of multiple nodes. For example, all of the physical hosts on the same rack in a datacenter may become unavailable simultaneously if the top-of-rack switch fails. Kudu’s rack awareness feature provides protection from certain kinds of correlated failures, such as the failure of a single rack in a datacenter.
The first element of Kudu’s rack awareness feature is location
assignment. When a tablet server registers with a master, the master assigns it a location.
A location is a
/-separated string that
begins with a
/ and where each
/-separated component consists of characters from
/dc-0/rack-09 is a valid location, while
/rack=1 are not
valid locations. Thus location strings resemble absolute UNIX file paths where characters in
directory and file names are restricted to the set
Kudu does not use the hierarchical structure of locations. Location
assignment is done by a user-provided command, whose path should be specified using the
--location_mapping_cmd master flag. The
command should take a single argument, the IP address or hostname of a tablet server, and
return the location for the tablet server. Make sure that all Kudu masters are using the
same location mapping command.
The second element of Kudu’s rack awareness feature is the placement policy: Do not place a majority of replicas of a tablet on tablet servers in the same location.
The leader master, when placing newly created replicas on tablet servers and when re-replicating existing tablets, will attempt to place the replicas in a way that complies with the placement policy.
For example, in a cluster with five tablet servers
E, with respective locations
/L2, to comply with the
placement policy a new 3x replicated tablet could have its replicas placed on
E, but not on
C, because then the
tablet would have 2/3 replicas in location
As another example, if a tablet has replicas on tablet servers
E, and then
C fails, the replacement replica must be placed
D in order to comply with the placement
In the case where it is impossible to place replicas in a way that
complies with the placement policy, Kudu will violate the policy and place a replica anyway.
For example, using the setup described in the previous paragraph, if a tablet has replicas
on tablet servers
E, and then
E fails, Kudu will
re-replicate the tablet onto one of
D, violating the placement policy, rather
than leaving the tablet under-replicated indefinitely.
rebalance tool can reestablish the placement policy if it is possible to do so.
kudu cluster rebalance tool can also be
used to reimpose the placement policy on a cluster if the cluster has just been configured
to use the rack awareness feature and existing replicas need to be moved to comply with the
placement policy. See Run a tablet rebalancing tool on a rack-aware cluster for