Spark application model
Apache Spark is widely considered to be the successor to MapReduce for general purpose data processing on Apache Hadoop clusters. Like MapReduce applications, each Spark application is a self-contained computation that runs user-supplied code to compute a result. As with MapReduce jobs, Spark applications can use the resources of multiple hosts. However, Spark has many advantages over MapReduce.
In MapReduce, the highest-level unit of computation is a job. A job loads data, applies a map function, shuffles it, applies a reduce function, and writes data back out to persistent storage. In Spark, the highest-level unit of computation is an application. A Spark application can be used for a single batch job, an interactive session with multiple jobs, or a long-lived server continually satisfying requests. A Spark application can consist of more than just a single map and reduce.
MapReduce starts a process for each task. In contrast, a Spark application can have processes running on its behalf even when it's not running a job. Furthermore, multiple tasks can run within the same executor. Both combine to enable extremely fast task startup time as well as in-memory data storage, resulting in orders of magnitude faster performance over MapReduce.